Marsh Owl is declining and very endangered is Morocco. This piece tries to address one of the main problems causing its decline, and your help is much appreciated.
Marsh Owl (Asio capensis) is a typical owl restricted to Africa and its biggest island. Three subspecies are recognised: 1) the nominate subspecies which has the largest range – from East to Southern Africa, plus isolated populations in West Africa; 2) A. c. hova in Madagascar, and 3) A. c. tingitanus in northwest Morocco.
Globally, the species is not threatened and is currently categorized as ‘Least Concern’ in the IUCN Red List. However, this is not the case for the isolated and declining Moroccan population. There is no Red List for Moroccan avifauna, but the species should easily qualify as ‘Critically Endangered’ for a number of criteria.
Breeding range and the start of the decline
The historical breeding range of Marsh Owl in Morocco extended from Tangier in the north until the marshes of Sidi Moussa-Oualidia in the south and inland to around Meknes. However, the species started to decline as early as the beginning of the 20th century in some regions and since the 1970s in most areas.
As with any isolated and small population, the decline started at the periphery of the breeding range: the species disappeared from most of Tangier peninsula except Tahaddart estuary, and severely declined or disappeared from Doukkala region and inland sites. Even at the centre of the breeding range, the species has decreased at some sites and disappeared from the others (e.g. the estuary of Oued Bou-Regreg – then it was in the centre, now it’s just outside of the present-day breeding area). The main cause of the decline in this period is habitat loss due to draining of the big marshes (for the expansion of agriculture).
Currently, the Moroccan population is very fragmented and the species persists only in a small number of areas: Merja Zerga, Lower Lokkous marshes, Sidi BouGhaba and Tahaddart estuary (but only one recent sighting here). The population size in unknown.
Threats to Marsh Owl in Morocco
Two main threats likely contribute the most to the decline of the species in Morocco nowadays.
- Habitat loss and degradation
This factor has been historically the main threat to Marsh Owl in Morocco (as mentioned above). Even today, habitat loss and degradation remain one the main threats. Encroachment of agricultural lands on the species’ breeding habitat still occurs at Merja Zerga and other sites.
- Disturbance and pressure from birders
This factor is more recent (after the species became already rare). It’s a big problem especially at the main stronghold of the species at Merja Zerga. The main people causing the disturbance are local and foreign guides. Many birders – independent or in groups – rely on the help of local guides to easily show them the species. And this involves most of the times disturbing the birds. Some foreign guides also follow the same tactics used by the local ones (disturbing an endangered bird species during the breeding season or at an important roosting site). Some independent birders also go straight to roosting palaces (and sometimes also to the breeding area) without any help (they use known locations from trip reports, eBird, Obsrvado,…). Even if most birders don’t admit this, everyone knows how things work there.
We are not trading blames here, or suggesting not using the local guides. No, quite the opposite, we recommend using the local guides even if you can see the species on your own (actually, I personally known some of them and still recommend them to foreign birders). But as a ‘client’ you should decline if the guide suggested what may unnecessarily disturb the owls.
The German birder Wolf Meinken summarized very well the current situation in this comment (and no one wants to see the prediction in the last phrase happen):
The guide was ok, he has good knowledge about local birds, a sharp eye and, most important, knows where to find the owls (contact: Khalil Fachkhir, Tel. 00212-663095358). The fee was 300 DH (around 27 EUR), which seems to be much. But if you consider that he hangs around for days in his office opposite the camp site waiting for clients it is not that much. And if we generate an owl-related income for local people, the probability increases that we still can see these birds in 20 years. To be honest I am not very confident, I think Marsh Owl is probably the next to go the way Moroccan populations of Tawny Eagle, Dark-chanting Goshawk, Arabian Bustard etc. already went.
The new star of Merja Zerga
It is not a big problem to visit the roosting sites during the non-breeding season to see the birds leaving these sites in late afternoon/evening. However, visiting the breeding sites during the breeding period to spot the owl is ethically unacceptable, especially if done by educated people.
Most local guides, with all due respect, don’t have any notion of sustainability and think that this source of money is here to stay. This is unfortunately not true. Some veterans, however, know very well what these ‘target species’ mean. In fact, these veteran guides remember well the golden age of Merja Zerga when the Slender-billed Curlew (Numenius tenuirostris) was still wintering there in the 1980s and early 1990s. After the likely demise of the Slender-billed Curlew, Marsh Owl remains the undisputed ‘star’ or flagship species of Merja Zerga. And these experienced guides certainly don’t want to lose it as they have lost the curlew.
Working together to save Marsh Owl in Morocco
The Moroccan Marsh Owl is important for three groups of people (I know this is simplistic, but let’s accept it for the sake of conclusion. Also, as I said at the beginning this blog-post tries to address the disturbance):
- Local bird guides: currently the Marsh Owl is the main flagship species of Merja Zerga that generates some income for them. Of course, the organisation of boat trips to watch waterbirds at close range is also important for them.
- Foreign bird guides (who came from outside the region and that include Moroccan and international guides): they offer this species for their clients.
- WP birders or listers (they may not like this word!) who need to see the species inside the Western Palearctic, or any other independent birder (irrespective of twitching and listing).
So let’s work together to help all these groups and the future generations by preventing the extinction of this iconic bird.
If anything is missing, please comment, thanks!